Propiedades térmicas e hídricas de materiales aislantes apropiadas para fábricas históricas = Thermal and hygric properties of insulation materials suitable for historic fabrics

Rosanne Walker, Sara Pavía


doi:10.20868/ade.2016.3305

Full Text: PDF

Abstract


Resumen

Mejorar el rendimiento térmico de los edificios mediante la adaptación del aislamiento puede reducir la pérdida innecesaria de calor y energía minimizando el impacto ambiental. El aislamiento térmico interior es a menudo el elegido en los edificios históricos para preservar sus características. Sin embargo, el aislamiento interior puede aumentar la acumulación de humedad en paredes que socavan su durabilidad. Hay una falta de conocimiento sobre la eficacia de sólidos muros históricos y el impacto del aislamiento interno en su comportamiento higrotérmico. Este artículo investiga las propiedades térmicas e hídricas de siete opciones de aislamiento internos, incluyendo la pintura térmica, aerogel (AG), corcho-cal (CL), cal-cáñamo (HL), silicato de calcio bordo (CSB), tablero de fibra de madera (TFB) y placa de polisocianurato (PIR). Sus propiedades se comparan con un enlucido de cal tradicional. El PIR y el aerogel AG muestran extraordinarias propiedades térmicas que contribuyen a la comodidad y ahorro de energía, y la CL y HL son permeables al vapor y a la capilaridad. Estos tienen aproximadamente el doble de la masa térmica de los otros aislantes. Además, la CL tiene una buena inercia térmica (segunda difusividad más baja) y, a pesar de su contenido orgánico, una adsorción de baja a alta RH.

Abstract

Improving the thermal performance of buildings by retrofitting insulation can reduce unnecessary heat loss and building operational energy minimising environmental impact. Internal thermal insulation is often favoured for historic buildings to preserve their features. However, internal insulation may increase moisture accumulation in walls undermining their durability. There is a lack of knowledge on the performance of historic solid walls and the impact of internal insulation in their hygrothermal behaviour. This paper investigates the thermal and hygric properties of seven internal insulation options including thermal paint, aerogel (AG), cork lime (CL), hemp lime (HL), calcium silicate board (CSB), timber fibre board (TFB) and polyisocyanurate (PIR) board. Their properties are compared with a traditional lime plaster. The PIR and aerogel AG show outstanding thermal properties that contribute towards indoor thermal comfort and energy savings and the CL and HL are vapour permeable and capillary active. They have approximately double the thermal mass of the other insulations. In addition, the CL has a good thermal inertia (2nd lowest diffusivity) and, in spite of its organic content, a low adsorption at high RH.


Keywords


Aislamiento; conductividad térmica; capacidad calorífica específica; difusividad; masa térmica; permeabilidad al vapor de agua; capilaridad ; humedad de referencia; porosidad abierta; nanoporosidad; Insulation; thermal conductivity; specific heat capacity

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