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Segregación Espacial por Renta. Concepto, Medida y Evaluación de 11 ciudades españolas = Spatial segregation by income Concept, measurement and evaluation of 11 Spanish cities

Ricardo Alvira Baeza


doi:10.20868/ciur.2017.114.3563

Texto completo: PDF

Resumen


La Desigualdad Socio Económica (DSE) ha sido fundamental en el nacimiento y evolución de las sociedades humanas. En esencia alude al reparto diferenciado de derechos y obligaciones (y la legitimidad de dicho reparto / diferencias) en cada sociedad. Se vincula por tanto inextricablemente a la Declaración Fundamental de Derechos Humanos.

Dentro de las posibles manifestaciones de DSE, en este texto nos centramos en revisar aquella que implica la segregación en el espacio urbano de los habitantes según su nivel de renta, que designamos como Segregación Espacial por Renta (SER)

El estudio individualizado de la SER es interesante para los arquitectos porque es posible actuar sobre ella en casi todas las escalas de trabajo; desde normativas que regulan las ciudades hasta proyectos residenciales de escala reducida, pasando por planes urbanísticos o transformaciones urbanas de diferente tamaño.

Y el objetivo con este texto es proponer indicadores y un procedimiento relativamente sencillos para valorar diferentes estados de SER de las áreas urbanas, de forma que las intervenciones urbanas habituales puedan diseñarse para dirigir las ciudades hacia niveles óptimos de SER.

Previamente a explicar los indicadores, revisamos brevemente el estado del arte diferenciando entre cuestiones generales de Desigualdad Socio Económica y específicas de la Segregación Espacial. Esto nos permitirá saber cuándo hay que actuar en el campo urbanístico y cuando poner el énfasis en medidas de otra naturaleza; e.g., mejora de la gobernanza corporativa; limitación de especulación en vivienda; políticas fiscales redistributivas,...

Adicionalmente, utilizamos los indicadores explicados para revisar 11 ciudades españolas, tanto para validar su diseño como para obtener una visión del estado actual de la SER en España. Este análisis nos permite proponer algunas estrategias para mejorar la situación actual de las ciudades españolas y prevenir escenarios futuros no deseados.

ABSTRACT:

Socio-Economic Inequality [SEI] has been of fundamental importance in the birth and evolution of human societies. It alludes to the different distribution of rights and obligations [and the legitimacy of such distribution/differences] in each society. It is therefore inextricably linked to Article 01 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Within the possible forms of SEI, in this text we focus on revising the one that implies the segregation in the urban space of the inhabitants according to their levels of income, usually designated as Spatial Segregation by Income [SSI].

Individualized study of SSI is interesting for architects because it is possible to act on it from almost all scales of architects’ work. From codes that regulate cities to small scale residential projects, through urban plans and different sizes of urban transformations.

Our objective with this text is to propose easy indicators and procedure for assessing SSI in urban areas, so usual urban transformations can be designed in a way that always directs our cities towards optimum levels of SSI.

Previously, we briefly review the state of the art in Inequality and Segregation, differentiating between general issues regarding SEI and specific issues of Spatial Segregation. This allows us knowing when it is necessary to act in the urban planning/architectural field and when it is more convenient to implement other type of strategies: e.g., improving corporate governance; limiting housing speculation; redistributive policies...

Additionally, we use herein explained indicators to review 11 Spanish cities, both to validate indicators’ design and to obtain an overview of current state of Spatial Segregation by Income in Spain. This analysis allows us to propose some strategies to improve Spanish cities’ current situation and prevent non-desired scenarios in the future.


Palabras clave


Sostenibilidad urbana; desigualdad económica; segregación espacial por renta; urban sustainability; economic inequality; spatial segregation by income; cities

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