Urban Sprawl's Drivers in Iran = Los conductores de la expansión urbana en Irán

Melika Mehriar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.20868/tf.2019.15.4000

Texto completo:




Urban sprawl as a low-density, planned or unplanned, unlimited and discontinuous expansion in peripheral areas of the cities is traditionally considered one of the global challenges. Iran has confronted with urban sprawl over the past four decades. The present study aimed to review and compare the relevant literature in developed and developing countries in order to study the drivers of urban sprawl particularly, the most crucial ones in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East. Accordingly, it was found that the processes of urbanization and particularly socio-economic conditions affected urban development areas in Iran. Based on the findings of previous studies, fast urbanization, land policies, and shortcomings in the planning system are the most influential drivers of the urban sprawl in Iran considering that these drivers work with each other instead of working in separated lines.


La expansión urbana como una expansión discontinua, planificada o no planificada, ilimitada y discontinua en áreas periféricas de las ciudades se considera tradicionalmente uno de los desafíos globales. Irán se ha enfrentado a la expansión urbana en las últimas cuatro décadas. El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo revisar y comparar la literatura relevante en países desarrollados y en desarrollo para estudiar los impulsores de la expansión urbana en particular, como los más importantes en Irán, un país en desarrollo en el Medio Oriente. En consecuencia, se ha encontrado que los procesos de urbanización y, particularmente, las condiciones socioeconómicas afectaron las áreas de desarrollo urbano en Irán. Según los hallazgos de estudios anteriores, la urbanización rápida, las políticas de tierras y las deficiencias en el sistema de planificación son los impulsores más influyentes de la expansión urbana en Irán, considerando que estos impulsores trabajan juntos en lugar de trabajar en líneas separadas.

Palabras clave

Discontinuous development; master plan; urban growth boundary; urban sprawl; desarrollo discontinuo; planeamiento; límite de crecimiento urbano; expansión urbana


ABBASZADEGAN, M, YAZDI, B.R. (2008). Utilization of smart growth in organizing urban sprawl. Journal of Technology of Education, 3, 33-48

ABDULAAL, W.A. (2012). Large urban developments as the new driver for land development in Jaddah. Habitat International, 36, 36-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.05.004

ALLEN, H. (2013). An integrated approach to public transport, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Global Report on Human Settlements

ALI AGHAZADEH, R.F, SHORKGOZAR, A. (2015). Review and evaluation of the urban development plans in Iran case study: the third master plan in Rasht, 1th National Conference on Earth Sciences and Urban Development

AMINIAN, A. (2012). Environmental performance measurement of tourism accommodations in the pilgrimage urban areas: the case of holy city of Mashhad, Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 514-522. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.117

BAGHERI, B, NEDAE TOUSI, S. (2018). An explanation of urban sprawl phenomenon in Shiraz metropolitan area (SMA). CITIES, 73, 71-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2017.10.011

BECK, R, KOLANKIEWICZ, L, CAMAROTA, S. A. (2003). Outsmarting smart growth: population growth, immigration, and the problem of sprawl. Washington, DC: center for immigration studies.

BHATTA, B. (2010), Causes and consequences of urban growth and sprawl; analysis of urban growth and sprawl from remote sensing data. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 17-36. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-05299-6_2

BALABAN, O. (2012). The negative effects of construction boom on urban planning and environment in turkey: unraveling the role of the public sector. Habitat International, 36, 26-35. DOI:10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.05.003

BOSKER, M, MARLET, G. (2006). Urban growth and decline in Europe. Discussion paper series/Tjalling C. Koopmans Research Institute, 6(18)

BONTIJE, M. (2001). Dealing with Deconcention: population deconcentration and planning response in polynucleated urban regions in north-west Europe. Urban Studies, 38(4), 769-785. DOI:10.1080/00420980120035330

BRESSON, G, MADRE J.L, PIRROTTE, A. (2004). Is urban sprawl stimulated by economic growth? A hierarichical bayes estimation on the largest metropolitan areas in France. 10th World Conference on Transport Research, Istanboul, Turkey.

BRUECKNER, J.K. (2000). Urban sprawl: diagnosis and remedies. International Regional Science Review, 23(2), 160-171. DOI:10.1177/016001700761012710

BRUGMANN, R. (2005). Sprawl: A compact history, Chicago, University of Chicago press

BURCHELL, R, GALLEY, C. (2003). Projecting incidence and costs of sprawl in the united states, Transportation Research Record, 1831. DOI:10.3141/1831-17

BUZAR, S, OGDEN, P, HALL, R, HAASE A, KABISCH, S, STEINFUHRER, A. (2007). Splintering urban populations: emergent landscape of reurbanisation in four European cities. Urban Studies, 44(4), 651-677. DOI:10.1080/00420980601185544

City population statistics, CIA World Factbook, (23 April 2010). www.citypopulation.de, GlobalSecurity, 1996 Iran Census, Petroleum Economist, Times Atlas

COUCH, C, LEONTIDOU, L, PETSCHEL, H. G (2007). Urban sprawl in Europe; landscapes, land-use change and policy, Blackwell Publishing. DOI:10.1002/9780470692066

ClUB, SIERRA. (1998). The dark of the American dream: the costs and consequences of suburban sprawl, challenge to sprawl campaign, College Park, https://www.tamalpais.serraclub.org/transportation/sprawl_report. What.html

Economic World (2015), the monthly newspaper, No.3671, (Decmber 2015). https://donya-e-eqtesad.com/%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%87-%D8%B4%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%87-3671

ESFAHANI, S.H, PESARAN, M.H. (2009). The Iranian economy in the twentieth century: a global perspective. Iranian Studies, 42(2), 177-211. DOI:10.1080/00210860902764896

Equilibrium plan to tehran, (2007). The National Organization of Land and Housing, http://archive.mrud.ir/UI/555aadd3-0947-4c51-8e39-377578e187b5/Catalogue.aspx?History

European Environmental Agency, Joint EEA-FOEN Report (2016), Urban Sprawl in Europe, ISSN 1977-8449

EWING, R. (1997). Is Los Angeles-style Sprawl Desirable?" Journal of The American Planning Association, 63(1), 107-126. DOI:10.1080/01944369708975728

FANNI, Z. (2006) .Cities and urbanization in Iran after the Islamic revolution. Cities, 23(6), 407-411. DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2006.08.003

FATHI, E. (2015). The urbanization trend in Iran. Amar, 12, 8-15

GALSTER, G, HANSON R, RATCLIFFE, M.R, WOLMAN, H, COLEMAN, S, FREIHAGE, J. (2001). Wrestling sprawl to the ground: defining and measuring an elusive concept. Housing Policy Debate, 12(4), 681-717. DOI:10.1080/10511482.2001.9521426

GHANBARI, A. (2013). Evaluating location of Mehr housing plan in the cities: Tabriz, Marand, and Hadi Shahr. Geographic Space, Iran, 48, 123-145

GHORBANI, R, JAME-E-KASRA, M, MIRZABAKI, M. (2013). Evaluation of spatial adaption ratio on urban comprehensive plans implementation process; case study: Bonab city. Journal of Geography and Urban Planning, 49, 119-216

GLAESER E.L, KAHN M.E. (2004). Sprawl and urban growth. Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, 4, 2481-2527, Elsevier. DOI:10.1016/S1574-0080(04)80013-0

HATMINEJAD, H, ZAMANAI, Z, HAJINEJAD, S, GAZAIE, M. (2013). Pathology of new town in Iran, Sepehr, 88, 47-57

HADY ZONOOZ, B. (2015). Evaluation of urban plans in Tehran. Haft Shahr, 53-54

HOSSEINI S.H, HAJILOU, M. (2018). Drivers of urban sprawl in urban areas of Iran. Papers in Regional Science, 1-22. DOI:10.1111/pirs.12381

HOSSEINI S.M. (2013). The analysis effective factors on urban sprawl of Mashhad. Master thesis of Geography and Urban Planning Faculty, Tehran University of Iran.

KHAEF, S. (2009). Planning for Sharake Gharb according new urbanism. Dissertation of Master, Urban Planning Faculty, Tehran University of Iran

KAMRAVA, S.M.A. (2005). An introduction to the contemporary urbanism of

Iran, Tehran University Press

KUCKMEHMETOGHLU, M, GEYMEN, A. (2009). Urban sprawl factors in the surface water resource basins of Istanbul. Land Use Policy, 26, 569-579, DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.08.007

LAHSAEIZADEH, A. (1987). Land settlement and cooperatives (FAO). Journal of Land Reform, 1(2)

LUDLOW, D. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe; the ignored challenge. European Environmental Agency

MAAB Consulting Engineers. (2007). Mahdoodeh&HarimShahr, MaSter Plan of Kangan, Housing & Urbanization Ministry, http://archive.mrud.ir/UI/forms/delivery.aspx?id=ce2b875f-fb36-41fb-a515-4eae0e3abcb7

MASOUMI H.E. (2011). A new approach to the Iranian urban planning; using neo-traditional development. Dissertation of Ph.D., Faculty of Spatial Planning, Technical University of Dortmund

MASOUMI H.E. (2012). Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl. Spatium, 27, 12-18. DOI:10.2298/SPAT1227012E

MASOUMI, H.E. (2014). A theoretical approach to capabilities of the traditional urban form in promoting sustainable transportation. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 9(1), 44-60

MASOUMI H.E, HOSSENINI, M, GOUDA A.A. (2018). Drivers of urban sprawl in two large middle-eastern Countries: literature on Iran and Egypt. Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography, 12(1). DOI:10.5719/hgeo.2018.121.4

MESBAH, S. (2017). Evaluating of location theories of residential tower, Sharake Gharb & Shahrake Ekbatan in Tehran. The 3th International Conferences of Engineering Science, Bangkok, https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ICRSIE03-ICRSIE03_144.html

MESHKINI, A, SAJJADI, J, TAFFAKORI, A. (2011). The impacts of land-grant and government housing policies on spatial expansion of Iran's Cities: case study of Kermanshah, 23, 47-68

MIRKATOULI, J, SAMADI, R, HOSSENEINI, A. (2018). Evaluating and analysis of socio-economic variables on land and housing prices in Mashhad, Iran. Sustainable Cities and Society, 41, 695-705. DOI.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.06.022

MOHAMMADIAN, M.H, TAVAKOLI, N. J, KHANI, H, TEYMOURI, A, KAZEMI, M. (2017). Monitoring land use change and measuring urban sprawl based on its spatial forms; the case of Qom city. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, 20, 103-116. DOI.org/10.1016/j.ejrs.2016.08.002

PARSI H.R, FARMIHANI, F.B. (2014). Analysis of the urban sprawl in the peripheral metropolitan areas case study: northen peripheral areas of Esfahan, Iran, urban studies, 10, 49-62

POOR AHMAD, A, HATAMI NEJAD, H. (2006). Evaluation of urban development plans in the Country. Geographic Researech, 58, 167-180

POOR AHMAS A, FARAJI MOLAEI, A, MANUCHEHRI, A, AZIMI, A. (2011). The influence of modernism into the spatial development of Islamic-Iranian Cities, Shahre Irani-Islami, 47-61

RASOOLIMANESH, S.M, JAAFAR, M, BADARULZMAN, N. (2013). Urban planning and management system in Iran: a review and assessment. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 18(2), 220-229

SARVESTANI, M.S, IBRAHIM LATIF, A.B, KANAROGLOU, P. (2011). Three decades of urban growth in the city of Shiraz, Iran: a remote sensing and geographic information systems application. Cities, 28(4), 320-329. DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2011.03.002

SHAHRAKI ZANGANEH, S, HOSSEINI S.M, (2009). Evaluation of the role of urban management institution of Iran after the Islamic revelation in physical development of cities. Shahrdaria Magazine, 9( 92), 26-31

SHAHRAKI ZANGANEH, S, SAURI, D, SERRA P, MODUGNO S, SEIFOLDINI, F, POOR AHMAD, A. (2011). Urban sprawl pattern and land use change detection in Yazd, Iran". Habitat International, 35(4), 521-528. DOI:10.1016/j.habitatint.2011.02.004

SHAHRAKI ZANGANEH, S, MAJIDI HERAVI, A, KAVIANI A. (2012). A comprehensive explanation of the causes and factors affecting the urban sprawl; case study: Yazd. Practical Research Geography Journal, 25, 173-193

SOLEYMANI, M, AHMADI FARD, N, RASHIDI E.H, A, SHAHRAKI ZANGANE, S. (2013). The impact of government plans on horizontal development of Tehran City. Geography and Planning Scientific Journal, 52, 185-204

SOLITANI, A, HOSSIENIPOUR, M, HAJIZADE, A. (2017). Urban sprawl in Iranian medium-sized cities; investigating the Role of Masterplans, Journal of Sustainable Development, 10(1), 122. DOI:10.5539/jsd.v10n1p122

Statistical Annual Book of Iran (1956-2011), https://www.amar.org.ir/%D8%B3%D8%B1%D8%B4%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%B1%DB%8C-%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%88%D9%85%DB%8C-C

Statistical Center of Iran, Main web Page, https://www.amar.org.ir/

ZALI, N, HASHEMZADE G., F, ESMAIZADE, Y. (2016). Analyzing urban sprawl of Tehran metropolis in Iran (During 1956-2011). Anuário do Instituto de Geociências 39(3), 55-62. DOI:10.11137/2016_3_55_62

ZANGI ABADI, A, ABDOLLAHI, M, SALEK G., R, GHASEMZADEH, B. (2014). Evaluation of Affecting factors into lack of realization of comprehensive urban plans in Iran and its challenges (case study: master plan of Tabriz). Research and Urban Planning, 18, 41-58

Zista Consulting Engineers (1993). The evaluation of the city comprehensive plans in Iran, Tehran. Planinng & Budgetary Organization press

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.