Livelihood strategies to address water induced vulnerability on marginal settlements: Lessons from Northern Mozambique and Mumbai

Anubhav Goyal, Joana Pereira


Texto completo:




Increase in water induced risks are realized with marginal settlements being more vulnerable due to limited adaptive capacity. The challenge put forward by climate change, in absence of adequate formal strategies, has forced the dwellers of marginal settlements, over the years, to adopt local adaptation strategies to survive the risk and live in harmony with water. The highly diverse characteristics based on livelihoods and social networks provide for adaptive capacity of the dwellers. The objective of the paper is to identify these strategies based on livelihoods or the daily activities of the dwellers within the marginal settlements in different territories. Rural marginal communities in Northern Mozambique and urban in Mumbai are assessed by direct observations, interpretation from collected images and literature review to present a framework of strategies based on livelihoods. Result provides for holistic findings that contribute to the lexicon of water-risk adaptation for marginal settlements in developing countries.

Palabras clave

Adaptation; Marginal settlements; Resilience; Vulnerability; Water


Adger, W., Arnell, N., Tompkins, E. (2006). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change 15, 77–86. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005

Anderson JL, Pariela F (2005) Strategies to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts Mozambique (Report). FAO, Rome.

Angelsen, A., Wunder, S. (2003). Exploring the Forest – Poverty Link: Key concepts,Issues and Research Implications (report). CIFOR Occasional Paper, 40, Indonesia. doi:10.17528/cifor/001211

Angoua ELE., Dongo K, Templeton MR, Zinsstag J, Bonfoh B (2018). Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. PLoS ONE 13(8):1–13. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0202928

Albizua A, Bennett EM, Larocque G, Krause RW, Pascual U (2021) Social networks influence farming practices and agrarian sustainability. Plos One 16(1): e0244619. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0244619

Albuquerque, A. De, Hobbs, A., & Hobbs, A. (2016). Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Land Use in Mozambique : Taxes , Financing , and Infrastructure (report). Climate Policy Initiative.

Artur, L., & Hilhorst, D. (2012). Everyday realities of climate change adaptation in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 529–536. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.11.013

Asefi-Najafabady, S., Vandecar, K. L., Seimon, A., Lawrence, P., & Lawrence, D. (2018). Climate change, population, and poverty: vulnerability and exposure to heat stress in countries bordering the Great Lakes of Africa. Climatic Change, 148(4), 561– 573. doi:10.1007/s10584-018-2211-5

Baird, Tiimothy; Gray, C. (2014). Livelihood Diversification and Shifting Social Networks of Exchange: A Social Network Transition?. World Development, 60, 14-30. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.02.002.

Bare, M., Kauffman, C., Miller, D. C., Hosonuma, N., Herold, M., Sy, V. De, Wells, J. A., Wilson, K. A., Abram, N. K., Hermans-neumann, K., Gerstner, K., Geijzendorffer, I. R., & Herold, M. (2010). Why do forest products become less available ? A pantropical comparison of drivers of forest-resource degradation.doi: 10.1088/1748- 9326/11/12/125010

Brouwer, R, Mabunda, R (2005). Livelihoods: An Analysis and Proposal to Reconcile Conservation and Development in the Buffer Zone of the Quirimbas National (report),WWF Mozambique, Maputo.

Ceauşu S, Graves RA, Killion AK, Svenning JC, Carter NH (2019) Governing trade-offs in ecosystem services and disservices to achieve human–wildlife coexistence. Conservation Biology 33(3):543–553. doi:10.1111/cobi.13241

Chambers R., Conway ,G. (1992) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. IDS Discussion Paper 296(29). doi: ISBN 0 903715 58 9

Charles, A. (ed.) (2021). Communities, conservation and livelihoods. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and Halifax, Canada: Community Conservation Research Network. doi:10.2305/IUCN.CH.2021.01.en

Chatterjee, Monalisa. (2010). Resilient Flood Loss Response Systems for Vulnerable Populations in Mumbai: A Neglected Alternative, The State University of New Jersey. dOI:10.7282/T3G44Q2X

Cochrane, M.A. (2009). Tropical Fire ecology, Climate change, Land use, and Ecosystem Dynamics. Springer, Chichester, UK. dOI:10.5860/choice.47-1397

Costa, H., Paula, A., Álvaro, C., Rubens, J., Augusto, L., Fernando, J.C., Omar, R. & Paula, J. (2016). Climate Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Priorities for the Quirimbas National Park (QNP). Final report. Biodinâmica S.A. prepared to WWF – MCO. Pemba, Mozambique, 145pp.

Dharavi weekly. (2020). Water city, Water everywhere - but not when you need it, Urbz.

Dickson, S. E., Schuster-Wallace, C. J., & Newton, J. J. (2016). Water Security Assessment Indicators: The Rural Context. Water Resources Management, 30(5), 1567–1604. doi:10.1007/s11269-016-1254-5

Dunham KM, Ghiurghi A, Cumbi R, Urbano F (2010). Human-wildlife conflict in Mozambique: A national perspective, with emphasis on wildlife attacks on humans. Oryx 44(2):185–193. doi: 10.1017/S003060530999086X

Eakin H., Luers A.L. (2006) Assessing the vulnerability of social- environmental systems. Annual Review Environmental Resources, 31, 365–394. doi:10.1146/

Faurès, J.-M., & Santini, G. (2009). Water and the Rural Poor Interventions for improving livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa (report). FAO Land and Water division, Rome.

Garrick, D., Hall, J.W. (2014). Water security and society: Risks, Metrics and Pathways. Annual Review Environmental Resources, 39, 611-639. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-013012-093817

Grasham, C. F., Korzenevica, M., Charles, K. J. (2019). On considering climate resilience in urban water security: A review of the vulnerability of the urban poor in sub‐Saharan Africa. In WIREs Water, 6(3). doi:10.1002/wat2.1344

Goyal, A. (2021). ESTRATEGIAS Y ENFOQUES PERTINENTES AL ESPACIO PÚBLICO PARA HACER FRENTE A LAS INUNDACIONES. A: "Seminario Internacional de Investigación en Urbanismo", Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Urbanisme, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, 13. doi:10.5821/siiu.10153

Gujral L, Sema C, Rebaudet S, et al. (2013). Cholera epidemiology in Mozambique using national surveillance data. J Infect Dis, 208(1),107–14. dOI:10.1093/infdis/jit212

Hahn, M. B., Riederer, A. M., & Foster, S. O. (2009). The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A pragmatic approach to assessing risks from climate variability and change- A case study in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 19(1), 74–88. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.002

INE (2017). 4° Censo Geral da População e Habitação 2017. Instituto Nacional de Estatística de Moçambique (

IPCC (2001).Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. doi:10.1002/joc.775

IPCC (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

IPCC (2018) Global Warming of 1.5°C Special Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Lamichhane, B.R., Persoon, G.A., Leirs, H., Poudel, S., Subedi, N., Pokheral, C.P., Bhattarai, S., Thapaliya, B.P., et al. (2018) Spatio-temporal patterns of attacks on human and economic losses from wildlife in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PLoS ONE 13(4):1–18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195373

MICOA (2012). Perfil Ambiental e mapeamento do uso actual da terra nos distritos da zona costeira de Moçambique (report). Impacto, projectos e estudos ambientais, Cabo Delgado.

MITADER (2012) Plano de Maneio 2011-2021 Parque Nacional das Quirimbas. Ministry of Tourism, Pemba, Mozambique

Mucova, S.A.R., Filho, W.L., Azeiteiro, U.M., Pereira, M.J. (2018) Assessment of land use and land cover changes from 1979 to 2017 and biodiversity & land management approach in Quirimbas National Park, Northern Mozambique, Africa. Global Ecology and Conservation, 16. doi:10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00447

Mugabe, V. A., Gudo, E. S., Inlamea, O. F., Kitron, U., & Ribeiro, G. S. (2021). Natural disasters, population displacement and health emergencies: Multiple public health threats in Mozambique. BMJ Global Health, 6(9). doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006778

Orr, S., Cartwright, A., Tickner, D. (2009). WWF water security series 4: understanding water risks, a primer on the consequences of water scarcity for government and business (report).

Osbahr, H., Twyman, C., Adger, W., Thomas, D., (2008). Effective livelihoods adaptation to climate change disturbance: scale dimensions of practice in Mozambique. Geoforum 39, 1951–1964. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.07.010

Pereira, J.; Rosalino, L.M., Mucova, S., Massangue, Y., Abdulrazark, M., Vahossa, S., Selemane, M., Fonseca, C., Santos, M.J. (2021). Livelihood vulnerability increases human-wildlife interactions. Environmental Conservation. 1-9 pp. doi:10.1017/S037689292100028X

Pereira, J., Santos, M.J., Rosalino, L.M. (2022). Role of local communities in the social network of the protected area management. Conservation Science and Practice, e12664. doi:10.1111/csp2.12664

Ratnayeke, S., Van Manen, F.T., Pieris, R., Pragash, V.S.J. (2014) Challenges of Large Carnivore Conservation : Sloth Bear Attacks in Sri Lanka. Human Ecology (42):467- 479. doi:10.1007/s10745-014-9643-y

Roseiro, A.H.R. (2013). Símbolos e práticas culturais dos Makonde (thesis). Coimbra University, Portugal.

Rrokaj, S., Corti, B., Giovannini, A., Cancelliere, G., Biotto, D., Radice, A. (2021). Flood mitigation measure and water storage in east africa: An analysis for the rio muaguide, Mozambique. In Hydrology, 8(2). doi:10.3390/hydrology8020092

Smits, J. (2016). GDL Area Database. Sub-national development indicators for research and policy-making. GDL Working paper 16-101

Thiault, L., Jupiter, S. D., Johnson, J. E., Cinner, J. E., Jarvis, R. M., Heron, S. F., Maina, J. M., Marshall, N. A., Marshall, P. A., & Claudet, J. (2021). Harnessing the potential of vulnerability assessments for managing social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 26(2). doi:10.5751/ES-12167-260201

Thierfelder, C., Rusinamhodzi, L., Setimela, P., Walker, F., & Eash, N. (2016). Conservation agriculture and drought-tolerant germplasm: Reaping the benefits of climate-smart agriculture technologies in central Mozambique. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 31(5), 414-428. doi:10.1017/S1742170515000332

Treves A (2009) Hunting for large carnivore conservation. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1350–1356. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01729.x

WFP (2021). Food security and livelihoods under a changing climate in Mozambique: Preparing for the future (report). Rome, Italy.

World Economic Forum. (2016). The Global Risks Report 2016: Insight Report, 11th Edition. Geneva: The World Economic Forum.

Xu, J.; Takahashi, M. Urban Marginalization and the Declining Capacity for Disaster Risks in Contemporary China. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 424. doi:10.3390/socsci10110424

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

Editado en Madrid por Departamento de Urbanística y Ordenación del Territorio (ETSAM), UPM.