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Review of health and safety management based on BIM methodology = Revisión de la gestión de seguridad y salud basada en la metodología BIM

Antonio J. Aguilar, Maria L. de la Hoz, Maria D. Martínez Aires, Diego P. Ruíz


doi:10.20868/bma.2019.2.3919

Abstract


Construction sector in particular requires a great attention due to its level of hazard associated to its special characteristics. In this regard it must also be remembered that unlike most industrial processes, the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry continues using traditional methods both in the design and execution of projects. In the specific case of safety management, these methods are based on the use of 2D plans/drawings to identify potential risks and establish preventive measures. These are manual working methods, usually based on the expertise of professionals. Recently, building Information Modelling (BIM) has emerged as a fundamental part of construction project management, where BIM is intended to replace the traditional methodology based on CAD. Several characteristics make the use of BIM appealing in safety management. On the one hand, the possibility of implementing BIM in construction projects provides the opportunity to control it from the beginning, applying prevention through design; this possibility has unleashed a growing interest in the application of BIM in construction safety and health management. In this context, this paper presents the results of the analysis and review of research in safety management applying BIM methodology. The methodology used to carry out this study is based on a systematic literature review. The analysis was carried out taking into account the following attributes: (1) year of publication, (2) country, (3) research topic and (4) applied technology. As a result of this study, we conclude that up to now BIM related research was mainly focused on the design and construction phase. An important aspect which is frequently studied is the implementation of new technologies throughout the construction process, for example, the use of algorithms, rule checking, real time location system combined with BIM methodology.

Resumen

El sector de la construcción es uno de los más peligrosos en el mundo, debido principalmente a las características especiales que presenta. Sin embargo, a diferencia de la industria, en el sector de la Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Construcción (IAC) se siguen empleando métodos tradicionales en el diseño y ejecución de los proyectos. En el caso específico de la gestión de la seguridad, estos métodos están basados en documentos y planos en 2D para identificar los riesgos y establecer las medidas preventivas. Estos métodos son manuales y basados normalmente en la experiencia del profesional. El Building Information Modelling (BIM) ha emergido como una herramienta fundamental en el sector de IAC, donde el BIM está llamado a reemplazar la metodología tradicional basada en CAD. La aplicación del BIM en proyectos de construcción aporta la ventaja de poder controlar el proyecto desde su inicio, pudiendo aplicar la prevención desde el diseño, mejorando así la gestión de la seguridad en este sector. El objetivo de la presente investigación es realizar una revisión del estado del conocimiento de la metodología BIM y la seguridad en obras de construcción. Con este fin, se han analizado las publicaciones anuales realizadas sobre este tema, en función de variables como título, año de publicación, tecnología, país de procedencia y caso de estudio. El análisis pone de manifiesto que las investigaciones están centradas principalmente en fase de diseño y construcción. Un aspecto importante es el empleo e implementación de nuevas tecnologías a lo largo del proceso constructivo, como es el uso de algoritmos, reglas de chequeo y sistemas de posicionamiento a tiempo real implementados en BIM.


Keywords


Building Information Modelling; Safety management; Construction; Review; Building Information Modelling; Gestión seguridad; Construcción; Revisión

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